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optionenbroker Celebrated for its old water wheels, town of Hama is found on Syria’s longest river, the Orontes. Ottoman Hama used to be a stopover at the significant north-south highway of Syria in addition to the guts of a neighborhood financial area of its personal. Intertwined social networks associated townspeople to the peasants and pastoral nomads of Hama’s hinterland. by way of the early 20th century a couple of elite and remarkable households had come to dominate the political and fiscal lifetime of Hama and its outlying villages, atmosphere the degree for the city’s dramatic access into Syrian nationwide lifestyles throughout the French Mandate and post-colonial sessions. established largely on neighborhood judicial data, this e-book is a social historical past of Hama over the past centuries of Ottoman rule. It examines the social and financial constructions that outlined people’s lives and that conditioned their participation within the old alterations of the eighteenth and 19th centuries. Dramatis personae comprise women and men, commoners and notables, retailers and artisans, and others who, taken jointly, signify a cross-section of a center japanese society as they entered the area of worldwide markets, ecu empires, and sleek states.

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110 The practice of polygyny, which in principle could help 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 50 LCR Hama 46:241-242, doc. 525, 20 Jumada I 1211/ 21 Nov. 1796. LCR Hama 46:154, doc. 324, 19 Rabi‘ I 1208/ 25 Oct. 1793. LCR Hama 53:25, 1 Safar 1266/ 17 Nov. 1849. LCR Hama 46:148, doc. 306, 8 Safar 1208/ 15 Sept. 1793. LCR Hama 46:187, doc. 416, 17 Jumada II 1208/ 20 Jan. 1794. A type of transaction known as bay‘ wafa’. LCR Hama 53:47, 29 Sha‘ban 1266/ 10 July 1850. LCR Hama 53:8, 25 Dhu al-Qa‘da 1265/ 12 Oct.

Dissertation, New York University, 1986). g. judicial oversight of ‘Alwani family awqaf in LCR Hama 46:381, doc. 682, 6 Sha‘ban 1214/ 4 Jan. 1800. 44 In this way notable lineages reproduced and renewed their association with particular religious or charitable institutions over a number of generations. The principal ashraf family endowment in late eighteenthcentury Hama was that of the scholar and businessman ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Kaylani (d. 1744). 46 The properties near Damascus were farmlands in the Ghuta (Damascus oasis) villages of Kafr Batna and Bayt Sawa.

691, awakhir Dhu al-Qa‘da 1144/ 25 May 1732; 46:149, doc. 312, 24 Safar 1208/ 1 Oct. 1793. By the mid-nineteenth century it was common for widows to receive delayed brideswealth in the form of cash, along with shares in jointly held residences which could then be consolidated through purchase and sale. See LCR Hama 53:52, 24 Ramadan 1266/ 3 Aug. 1850; 53:53, 27 Ramadan 1266/ 6 Aug. 1850; 53:61, 19 Shawwal 1266/ 28 Aug. 1850. LCR Hama 42:273, doc. d. -Sept. 1727; 42:314, doc. 632, awa’il Jumada I 1141/ 3 Dec.

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