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Admittedly, there are countries where it would not be surprising to find a Keynes-type reaction. Japan, for example, has got organized on the basis of a very high rate of saving; so a decline in the rate of voluntary investment there might well have the the regular Keynes effect. In most Western countries, however, it is saving that is deficient; a decline in investment might require some readjustments, but on the whole it would make things in that direction easier. What would not become easier is the behaviour of wages.

A possible obstacle is shortage of labour—labour in general, not specifically trained. In a particular country that may well be important; but for the world as a whole (and railway-building went on over the whole world) it does not look like being so important. Another is a monetary constraint; but INDUSTRIALISM 27 that is a matter of particular institutions, and Keynes has taught us that it can be wished away. There still remains a further constraint, of which older economists were well aware; it is one which we have learnt from our own experience cannot be overlooked.

They have no larger capacity than the machines they replace; it simply costs less to run them. There is then no rise in final output when the new machines come into production. What does happen is that resources are released; but if double equilibrium is to be maintained, they must still be employed. They may be employed in squeezing additional output out of old processes; or they may be employed in making new machines. In the former case, there will at that stage be a rise in final output; and even in the latter case, though there is again no increase in output while the extra machines are being made, there will in the end be an increase in final output.

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