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Interests. It was for this reason that the United States peered uneasily at local political activities in the late 1980s. During that period, Manuel Antonio Noriega concentrated power in his hands. Capital flight, foreign debt, and budget deficits marked Noriega’s tenure. S. policy turned. As a young officer in the Panamanian Defense Force (PDF), Noriega received cash from the CIA as a paid agent. Later, he also received payments from the Colombianbased Medellin narcotics cartel in return for allowing Panama to serve as a conduit for the drug dealers to reach their North American market and as a money-laundering service for the cartel’s lucrative profits from sales within the United States.
Like the 1983 Grenada intervention, Panama proved that democracy can be promoted through the barrel of gun, when an authoritarian clique obstructed free and fair elections. But in neither case did the United States engage in a lengthy occupation as in postinvasion Iraq. Instead, it quickly handed over the reins of power to indigenous politicians and left the countries to find their own democratic way. Intervention and Democracy 33 Although American soldiers did die at the hands of Noriega’s poorly armed and trained Digbats, the Panama campaign brought back some of the mystique to the armed forces that had been lost since the Vietnam War and compounded by a string of dismal armed operations—the deeply flawed Desert One rescue mission into Iran, the gaffe-packed Grenada invasion, the bombing of Marine headquarters in Lebanon, and the wrongful downing of an Iranian airliner.
The spectacle of unruly mobs produced public relations problems for the Pentagon, until it deployed an additional 2,000 infantrymen. The lesson that an occupation demands more armed personnel than an assault was lost on Washington officials a decade later in the months preceding the Iraq War. S. soldiers administered it, which made it dangerous for would-be sellers to approach out of fear of being mistaken as aggressors. Moreover, American units had no cash ready to buy the pistols, rifles, and grenade launchers when offered for exchanged.